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Thursday, June 30, 2016

An Illusion of Present


An Illusion of Present

By Dr. Ryan Donlan
Assistant Professor
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University
&
Dr. Steve Gruenert
Professor and Department Chairperson
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University


            Recently in considering notions of past, present, and future, we discussed an undergraduate Philosophy course of Dr. L. Nathan Oaklander at the University of Michigan-Flint, where students discussed whether time traveled from the past, through the present, and toward the future, or conversely, whether the past, present, and future were simply a series of “after this/before this” relationships. 
Deep stuff and an awesome professor!
            This came to our mind as we were traveling while spending a day in northern Indiana with a great group of educators discussing our book, Minds Unleashed. 
            Let us share a bit of unleashing with you today.
            As we reflected on the ride home, we talked of the notion of “the present.”  We’re not really sure the present really exists, …if we really try to point at it on a continuum between the past and future. 
If it does, it is a very short thing, indeed.
            Something fleeting.
            Something very much temporary.
            We often hear, “Be in the present” with others.  “Savor the present, because we won’t know what the future will bring.”
            We’re not sure this is possible.
            The present is actually just a split second, even if that.
            It’s our foot hitting the sand.
            Yet, as soon as the footprint is visible, the present is now the past.

            On a calm day in schools, one present moves to another, to another, to another, without too much urgency or even an awareness of what was happening at each point we were in the present.
            The immediate past is really all we perceive. And in schools, all we profess is the future (being prepared).
            On a harried day, the present is more like our shoe hitting the plank of a suspension bridge as we are running across a canyon, with each plank falling immediately behind us, into the chasm of consequence, as soon as “present” clicks into “past.” 
Second-by-second. 
No do-overs.
What you just read in now in the past.

So, when we hear that we should savor the present, isn’t it more true that we should actually savor what’s immediately in our past (our child’s smile that just resonated with us; the friendly pat on the back of a colleague that felt good, or the opportunity to say something kind to a parent that made a difference), before it gets too far in the past, or before something in the future skews that memory, or the reality of its impact?

What may be more important to us as school leaders is THE NOW, which might differ in a definitional sense from the present. 
“Now” might include something more than that instant of present; it is our active involvement regarding what’s happening, what just came into our mind, and even what might greet us in the next few moments, based on our intuition and that sixth sense that cause school leaders to imagine what’s around that next corner, before we turn it.
To be in the NOW requires a deep respect for what has come before, as well as what we remember and don’t remember about it.  We are humbled that we only have so much capability to deal with NOW, as our existential cup can only hold so much when we are asked to hold so much of everyone else’s. 
The NOW is very slim, though admittedly not as slim as “Present.” 
While slim, however, it is dense, both forgiving and unforgiving.
We envision NOW sort of like a statistical confidence interval around one’s particular score in life at that moment (that score existing as a “Present,” sort of like a student’s standardized test sore, at it is only a flash of what took place at that moment, and nothing more).  In fact, that interval will extend into the past and/or present – it has to since the construct “now” is an illusion and does not really exist.
Yet, the visual is that, indeed . . . confidence interval.
A certain degree of “give,” “flex-potential,” or “play” around a particular moment in time, where we are still savoring the immediate past and interacting with it, as well as going second, footstep-by-footstep, and interacting with what is around the next corner, through both science of leadership and intuition, as that is our immediate future.
It is a dynamic space in which management exists, and at times, leadership as well.  It is where “maybe so” and “might be” happens.

Why is all of this important in schools, even if potentially ridiculous to comprehend?

That moment in the hallway where we have something on our mind that is troubling us, and we look left to see a student who catches the grimace on our face . . . will that student think it was directed at him?  What should we do to mop up that impression that is already in the past of that student’s school experience?
Can NOW still retrieve it and offer a re-do?
We have immediate past, present, and the quickly discernable future within our grasp.  What is the hook?  Let’s examine with an example, regarding that grimace:
“I wonder if my principal likes me.  He didn’t look like it.”
That moment when in conflict, we either choose to take the first step toward amends, or choose to take another direction before reaching out with an olive branch . . . what second of “present,” or better said, WHAT EXISTS IN THE SPACE OF NOW, will make an indelible imprint in someone else’s immediate past, as she thinks about you that evening.
“And to think that once upon a time, I respected her!”
The NOW when a student hands us something completely unacceptable for an assignment, and we choose to make that first mark in ink.  NOW’s interval of our teachership, and the resulting volition involved, will not soon be erased with another’s memory of school, and how one felt when assignments were returned.
Best use of NOW???
“I’m really glad that Mr. Joseph didn’t go off on me for handing that in, like it was!  That really sucked, and he had my back, even when I didn’t have my own.”

If we were honest with ourselves, heading through life is really a matter of looking through the windshield and the rear-view mirror while paying attention to the dashboard as well.  All three comprise the NOW, but we are traveling very quickly. 
Not paying attention to NOW can result in an accident.
While in the interval, as in driving a car, our second-by-second movements, actions, and reactions (the present) are more a product of our training than any conscious decision that we have time to make in heavy traffic.
What has our K-12 educator driver’s training prepared us to do in heavy traffic?  When we’re IN THE NOW?
Will we leave behind us clear lanes and memories of joyful sightseeing, or rather skid marks and a few collisions that make others fearful of getting behind the wheel themselves.  We’ll create memories, either way. 
That’s NOW’s job description, even if the present doesn’t accord us any real opportunity to take action, other than the one that is now a blink behind us.

The present is misunderstood. 
We think we’re in it more often than we are.
We think we can control it. 
Past is where most present is conceived, without our understanding that once something moves into its space, we’re no longer able to get it under control, unless we have a firm grasp on the NOW and a willing invitation from the minds and hearts of those who own it in memory, to give us NOW’s chance, at that point.


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Ryan Donlan and Steve Gruenert are becoming more aware of the power of the NOW, and our obligation in K-12 education to pay attention to it.  With continual pressure to think about how the present will affect the future, they think it may be time to bring what is under-rated, or even undiscovered (NOW’s confidence interval) and give it some visibility. Please feel free to contact them at ryan.donlan@indstate.edu or steve.gruenert@indstate.edu if you would like to ponder with them sometime.

Friday, May 13, 2016

The Power of Empathy


The Power of Empathy

By Gina M. Pleak
Ph.D. Student
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University
Principal
Bartholomew Consolidated School Corporation
&
Ryan Donlan
Assistant Professor
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University



Be kinder than necessary because everyone you meet is fighting some kind of battle.
--J.M. Barry

As school leaders, it is imperative that we have positive human relations with our school community members.  At times, this may be difficult.  However, if we consider Barry’s quote above during those times, it may help us focus our energy in a way that will lend itself to a resolution. 
How? 
Empathy.
Empathy is a powerful skill for school leaders to use in order to build relationships with others.  It is the ability to understand another person’s behavior through the lived experience of our own perspective.  It allows us to communicate in a way that lets others know we understand what they are feeling and that we understand how and in what manner they are communicating to us.
In To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee wrote, “You never really understand another person until you consider things from his point of view—until you climb inside of his skin and walk around in it.”  The old saying of put yourself in another’s shoes applies. In reality, we may not totally be able to understand anyone’s situation, but through an empathetic lens, we are at least making an effort of doing so. 
Some say empathy is an art, because it does not necessarily conform to linearity or strict laws of nature.  In its dynamic and ever-adapting form (to another’s circumstance), it not only creates, enhances, and maintains positive relationships, it also resolves conflicts and offers a therapeutic option when conflict cannot be completely extinguished.  It moves stages of grief toward acceptance more quickly, yet naturally . . .  readily. 
A famous quote from Dalai Lama is “Listen with empathy and speak with compassion.”  When parents, staff members, colleagues, parents, or students come to us upset, defiant, or hostile, a natural response for even the best of us may include defensiveness, passing judgment, or sometimes equally inhibiting, a rescue, when others are better left to solve their own problems. 
Another option is to listen, empathetically. 
By recognizing and acknowledging others’ perspective, you offer them a chance to validate themselves through supportive reflection and empowerment.  You provide them an opportunity for another to see an issue from their perspective.  This might be the first time, in a very long time that this was offered to them. 
We are not suggesting that this be done from a superficial level in order to pacify individuals (admittedly most all in K-12 leadership have this ability), but rather to put forth an earnest effort to view the circumstance in terms of how they are feeling; what they are going through; what they need done. 
To acknowledge as fellow human beings that we may have experienced something similar, yet not necessarily with the myriad issues complicating this circumstance, goes a long way in connecting authentically and showing that we honor the uniqueness of the present.
A question sometimes asked of us is, “In using empathy, are there times where relating the current situation to our own experiences is appropriate?”  Yes, if handled with caution.  As time heals all wounds for someone, the person sitting across from you will not necessarily be in a place for cognitive reassurance.  Traumatic and life-changing events simply don’t provide for a natural shot of resilience, while they are taking place. 
A better shot in the arm might be a nod, an authentic affirmation, and our showing others that we are relating (rather than telling them that we are) and proving through example.
For great school leaders, empathy provides such an opportunity.
Let us examine empathy’s tool kit.
To be empathetic, listening without interruption is a must.  Nonverbal communication is more important than the verbal.  It is more the tones, gestures, postures, and facial expressions, than the words used.  Awkward pauses may, at times, be unavoidable, and in those circumstances, we may be tempted to jump-right-in with our own thoughts and opinions.  After all, we’re people-fixers.  Or at least that is part of what society expects of us.
However, the better choice is to “inact.”
A preferred alternative, where there is choice, is to be quiet, empathetically.
Making intentional our decision to give others extra time to talk, think, and speak will provide us with more information about what they are going through.  It will also let them know we are there to listen and support them—not necessarily to solve the dilemma. 
Let us be clear: Empathy is not sympathy, nor is it pity. 
Great school leaders know the difference. 
Further, empathy comes easier to some of us than to others. 
For those where it is more a stretch, can we learn to improve it?  YES, as empathy is a social skill, developed or enhanced with intentional practice and reflection.
As we reflect again on Barry’s quote,  “Be kinder than necessary because everyone you meet is fighting some kind of battle,” we might also bring to minds the next desperate parent, the next tale of toil, or the next attempt to invite rescue.  Then, in visualizing what we can do, compassionately and empathetically, as an alternative that empowers others to take action and work through circumstance, we might work to build a better default position, of less advice and more support.
We might find that we are left with a default, less judgmental or defensive.
Empathy allows school leaders to develop, enhance, and maintain relationships.  It greatly influences our school invitingness, especially for those who find school is the only place they can tell their stories, even if with a bit of venom or snarl. 
Empathy is an opportunity for school leaders to capitalize on the next teachable moment, showing others what sincerity and an unconditional positive regard can do for those in a time of need.


________________________________________________________________  

Gina Pleak and Ryan Donlan believe in the old Irish saying, “The best looking glass is the eyes of a friend.”  Are we as school leaders the eyes of a friend, when others approach us?  Do we make time for their stories, even when we don’t have it?  Do we strive for authentic regarding, rather than feigned transparency?  If you would like to discuss any of this further, please do not hesitate to reach-out and have a conversation at pleakg@bcsc.k12.in.us or at ryan.donlan@indstate.edu. 

Wednesday, April 20, 2016

Helping Our Kids Succeed


Helping Our Kids Succeed

By Nada Almutairi
Ph.D. Student
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University
&
Ryan Donlan
Assistant Professor
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University


            Teachers think about different ways to raise their class’s test scores.
Leaders in schools think about different ways to increase their school’s test scores.
However, teachers are hardwired, more holistically, to think about making a difference in students’ social, emotional, physical, and academic success. They know that the most important duty of educators is to assist students in reaching their potential and inspiring children to discover their inner passions to learn and thrive in the world.  
            Today most schools and teachers use grading practices in school courses as a gauge to determine, and share information regarding, test-readiness and life preparation. But when educators focus so intently on an academic curriculum to increase test scores, the result runs the risk of kids’ memorizing a bunch of information that will be forgotten, long before it is applied.
            Life experience will not as readily utilize what is learned.  
            Also, with an overemphasis on grades and standardized testing, children may forgo the development of other skills they need, such as the soft skills necessary for collaboration in the workplace and the interpersonal skills necessary for positive relationships and friendships. Bookwork and tests may supplant deeper learning of things less academic, yet more “real.”
We believe that the perfect schools would blend the real world and that of an academic curriculum together, seamlessly. For instance, elementary students could simultaneously provide a flavor of learning in which the real world works in concert with any content’s core curriculum.
An expansion of student deskwork would be a good start.
Bell (2010) explained the use of Project-Based Learning, noting its use as a student-driven, yet teacher-facilitated, approach to inquiry, in which students could pursue information by asking questions stemming from each other’s curiosity. These questions could then guide them through research toward answers in line with their interests, aptitudes, and abilities.  Teachers would serve as guides, supervising students while they search for answers while work cooperatively with those who share their passion.
Collaboration, communication skills, and honoring each student’s learning style or preference are the keys in PBL.  Students are expected to solve real-world problems by designing their own explorations, planning their learning, and organizing their research. Teachers motivate each individual, as well as guiding and supervising each student (Bell, 2010).  We think of how children, worldwide, could benefit from an expansion of learning using constructivism, individualization, and activity.
This is no new concept to the Leadershop audience, we realize.  Yet why are we trying to tease out a bit of discussion, this week, on PBL?
As leaders, we believe that sad facet of education in both the third world and in countries quite developed is that defined by “teaching to the test.”  And a lot of this is occurring.
Test-teaching/test-doing.
In this set-up, students may learn facts and ways to solve book-and-pencil problems, yet they fall short in developing connections between these facts and the real world in which they live.  When this happens, we believe students lose the value of learning.
Certainly, the value of lifelong learning is missed.
As we think of ourselves as relatively progressive in our pedagogy, pacing, and assessing, are we “on watch” to ensure that much of what we do in education today is not relying upon lower-level knowledge acquisition, dependent upon memorization without necessarily understanding? For instance, education in the Middle East oftentimes focuses on teaching students test-taking strategies, with much of the world thinking the United States is encouraging students to develop their discovering and thinking.  
Is much of the world correct in this assumption?
Probably not.
Surprisingly, education in the United States (USA) is moving toward a memorization paradigm, furthered certainly by No Child Left Behind (NCLB), yet in reality borne of an accountability movement predating.  A movement touting learning for all students unfortunately was derailed by a political and economic agenda that hasn’t worked out too well.
Ravitch (2013) noted No Child Left Behind’s standardized testing can provide useful information about students, yet as soon as the scores are tied to a staff’s job security, extrinsic motivators and scare tactics such as bonus structures and schools threatened with closure, the measures become goals, no longer indicators of how learning is occurring.
Good point, she has.
We may be starting, however, to turn things around. 
We’ll see.
Could an expansion of project-based learning be a nice start?
It might be, if states and local communities are encouraged to take risks, do things their own, way, and explore (as a model that students, themselves, could emulate). 
We know that project-based learning is important in that it teaches students by asking questions that pique their natural curiosity.  This choice will increase the joy of learning.  Also, we believe that project-based learning techniques will develop students’ self-efficacy during their school days, as well as their years in K-12, and thereafter. 
Could the same be said for the adults, if encouraged into projects of their own?
Admittedly, teaching students how to take tests is also important for their future. We adults know that.  It’s a part of life, and arguably a fairly important one.
Students after graduation from high school will face many standardized tests.  These standardized tests are for different careers that students plan to purses. Even our English Language Learners (ELL students) are required to prove their language proficiency by obtaining a TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language, or an IELTS - International English Language Testing System.  Yet once doing so, we’re all asked to demonstrate real-world competencies and soft skills in a collaborative workforce . . . in a collaborative society.
Thus, all things considered, let us call for a more equitable balance of academic and human capital development in our schools today.  Let us use creative strategies of lesson and content delivery to ensure our students will perform in all sectors of life, in all sectors of demand.
A balance of human development discourse in the context of uplifting academic achievement might be a viable pathway to pursue, if we wish to help our kids succeed, from where they are to an even better place. 
Wouldn’t we all prefer this for our children?

References

Bell S., (2010). Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future. The Clearing House, 83, 39-43

Ravitch, D. (2011, March 20). Obama's War on Schools. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/03/20/obama-s-war-on-schools.html
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Nada Almutairi and Ryan Donlan are concerned about global efforts to prioritize test-doing, over that of student development and lifelong love of learning.  If you like to join their conversation about ways we can re-evaluate how we’re measuring student success, and how we’re measuring our own, please be encouraged to contact them at nalmutairi3@sycamores.indstate.edu or at ryan.donlan@indstate.edu.  

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Transformational Leadership through Environmental Architecture




Transformational Leadership through Environmental Architecture

By Rehab Al Ghamdi
Ph.D. Student
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University
&
Ryan Donlan
Assistant Professor
Department of Educational Leadership
Bayh College of Education
Indiana State University


Instilling transformational leadership is essential in any educational setup.

We, as educators, work industriously to motivate and engage students, facilitating their learning, reading, critical thinking, creating, collaborating, and becoming life-long learners as well as leaders in their contemporary surroundings.

This is by no means an easy feat.

Consider the excitement elicited and how we smile when students dive passionately into a subject, ask for extra reading time, or form cross-curricular links that excite them genuinely.  This does not happen without a good deal of intentionality, some lying below the surface of what is typically witnessed as the business of school. In this case, trying to make both ends meet is not an easy task. One such example is when educational administrators work toward moving levers in a school’s climate. This, at a much deeper level, begins to influence a longer-term organizational culture that encourages and propagates continuous learning as well as growth of both students and teachers.

This is environmental architecture.

According to Simon Sinek’s (2014) Leaders Eat Last: Why Some Teams Pull Together and Others Don’t, the concept of ENVIRONMENT is noted. When the environment at work is that of encouragement and meets the primary human requirements to learn and live, individuals are bound to do more than just survive . . . they thrive, as they feel valued and important. Environment also influences their behavioral changes (Tyson, 2013) and helps them to cope with different situations. 

They soar to greater heights.

School administrators are the immediate architects of environment, or they should at least try to be, as transformational leadership requires a place suited to making it happen.  Leaders are to take-up this responsibility and mold the appropriate environment.

This is especially important, as people are oriented with different preferences.

Kahler (2008) noted the importance of environmental preferences, demonstrating that depending on a person’s goal orientation and one’s preferences toward involvement or isolation, particular environments suit people better than do others in the workplace.  Different people would prefer different environments in which they work best. Some prefer to work one-on-one; some in groups, some on the fringes of groups (getting the lion’s share of attention), and some prefer to work discretely alone.  Therefore, individualized provisions of such environment would prove worthy to individuals, according to their preferences.

Each person has a chance to perform.

With the right environmental preferences, people can perform better, as more of their foundational needs of safety and security are considered.  Our best leaders consider it their obligation to construct the right environment (i.e. conditions) to make this possible. This is particularly important in terms of what we find that we can and cannot control as we work to lead organizations and as part of this, to manage people and ensure provide each with suitable environment. For instance, management can allow employees to restructure an office without their direct approval. This creates an environment in which one feels part of the office and entire work process.

People do have the attitude to change.

According to Sinek (2014), we do not have the power to “change people.”  However, we can change what occurs near or around them, which may invite a certain degree of change within them a bit more indirectly.  We can create a circle of safety (Sinek, 2014), which is really an environmental concept, as well as one of basic needs-attentiveness.

Management matters a lot in carrying out responsibility.

We wholeheartedly agree that effective educational administration involves empowerment, motivation, genuine concern for others, and creating the right environment that is conducive to the well-being of the whole person, whether staff or student. Yet, what is the right environment, when people differ so tremendously?  Common to the notion of transformational leadership through environmental architecture are the following:

First, school administrators must use environment to communicate vision and moral purpose.  In this case, they have to act effectively. It is not sufficient for leaders to have or verbally convey a moral purpose; they should capitalize on the symbols and create comforts of the space in which everyone works, to convey it, illuminate it, and a request for the commitment of others to it.  In doing so, leaders would mindfully organize the space in which we work, consequently selecting its components and asking, “Do my colors and textures match the intentionality of my expectations and obligations?” 

“Do form, fixtures, and functionality intersect in a way that message the mission and validate the vision?” Probably, this will steer a sense of change and actualization of ideas.

Secondly, school administrators must understand that space is under critical influence of the words, tones, gestures, postures, and facial expressions of the persons in it. This concerns the administrators’ interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships. People create their own backdrop of environmental visibility.  Because of such, administrators and teachers must constantly work not only to develop but also to maintain an upbeat relationship with others by instituting trust, mutual respect, as well as a safe learning environment.  This will determine to what extent persons walk about comfortably or conversely with a certain degree of defense mechanisms, dotting the environmental landscape.  Environmental wallpaper is, thus, important to the success of internal and external relationships.

Finally, school administrators must leverage environmental architecture in how they set examples for others and the images they create for the institution. Such leaders not only model but also display the very attributes they wish to inculcate in their students and see in their coworkers. The servers are their own teacher-leaders of the way business is done through people, providing not only the pallet, but also the paint.  Effective leaders motivate others by not only communicating but also modeling commitment, enthusiasm, flexibility, innovation and integrity. All of this works out to create an appropriate environment for each of them.

Provisions for appropriate environment are, in turn, paramount.

Therefore, as Sinek (2014) alluded to using different terms, but similar constructs, the creation of the right environment through transformational architecture is bound to motivate everyone within.  School administrators who create a safe, open and welcoming environment, will notice readily that students will feel more at ease while learning and the teachers will perform their best, leading to achievement of excellent results.   Such kind of an environment will make teachers and students feel empowered to take risks and develop to the best of their abilities.

Change is inevitable.

 It is simple really: for us to transform others and ourselves through leadership, we need a certain degree of finesse with our environmental architecture.

In conclusion, our leaders have it in within arm’s reach.

Our leaders have the responsibility in their possession to provide adequate and conducive environments.  The administrators would then otherwise assess and establish the preferences people have and provide them to ensure maximum productivity.

If leaders “get it right” on environment, then their folks will have the capacity to achieve remarkable things, expanding their capabilities. As Sinek (2014) reminded us . . . In the Marine custom, senior officers eat last, while their soldiers eat first.  This then charges our leaders to work their level best, to ensure each individual is satisfied in their environment.  In this regard, the assertion can be that our leaders have the charge to provide transformational leadership by creating adequate and conducive environments for everyone.

We would like to encourage our professionals to make this a part of their school cafeteria’s environmental wallpaper, as well, and have everything at its best.




References
Kahler, T. (2008). The process therapy model: Personality types with adaptations. Little Rock, AR: Taibi Kahler Associates, Inc.
Sinek, S. (2014). Leaders eat last: Why some teams pull together and others don’t. New York, NY: The Penguin Group.
Tyson, B. (2013). Social influence strategies for environmental behavior change. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, Inc.
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Rehab Al Ghamdi and Ryan Donlan believe that leadership involves not only supporting the people working with us, but also providing an environment that allows everyone to play to his/her strengths.  If you would like to share ways you have leveraged environment to help someone on your team, please feel free to contact them at ralghamdi@sycamores.indstate.edu  or at ryan.donlan@indstate.edu.